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Scientific Payload
When a Rover is exploring it need tools and sensors to measure and analyse its environment. Each scientific instrument carried by a Rover is tailored to achieve specific task. This can range from capturing a 3-D stereoscopic image, to recording temperature, or analyzing rock composition. Typical scientific instruments and tools carried by a Rover might be:



PancamPanoramic Camera (Pancam)
For determining the mineralogy, texture, and structure of the local terrain.


    Miniature Thermal Emission SpectrometerMiniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES)
For identifying promising rocks and soils for closer examination, and to determine the processes that formed Martian rocks.
    Mössbauer SpectrometerMössbauer Spectrometer (MB)
For close-up investigations of the mineralogy of iron-bearing rocks and soils.
    Alpha Particle X-Ray SpectrometerAlpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)
For close-up analysis of the abundances of elements that make up rocks and soils.

For collecting magnetic dust particles.

    Microscopic ImagerMicroscopic Imager (MI)
For obtaining close-up, high-resolution images of rocks and soils.
    Rock Abrasion ToolRock Abrasion Tool (RAT)
For removing dusty and weathered rock surfaces and exposing fresh material for examination by instruments onboard.
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